Research & Development Honda R&D Technical Review Vol.12 No.1 PDF

Honda Research and Development- Technical

  1. Ichiban
    Honda Date of issue: April 01, 2000

    Development of an Automatic Charger for ICVS City Pal
    An inductive charger and automatic connecting unit have been developed to charge the two-seater electric vehicle “ICVS City Pal”. Inductive charge coupling is accomplished in just one action, that is, by placing a convex cylinder shaped inductive charge coupler into a concave shaped inlet. The automatic connecting unit employs a multi-joint robot arm structure to smoothly connect the unit to the City Pal regardless of slight variations in stopping position.
    By Kenji UCHIBORI、Hiromichi IMAI、Toshihiro SONE、Toshiaki TAKIZAWA、Kiyotaka HAYASHI、Akiyoshi YAMAMOTO

    Development of a Motor Assist System for a Hybrid Car – INSIGHT.
    A motor-assist system has been developed and employed for the ‘Insight’ hybrid car. The system consists of an internal combustion engine as a primary power source, and a motor placed around the engine crankshaft. This construction is highly compact and offers more flexibility for a power plant layout.The system’s functions include absorption of braking energy, idling-stop, driving power assistance, and power supply for the 12V electrical system. A proper energy management method for various driving modes has been established by combining these functions and fuel economy is significantly improved as a result. Other control features include, an active motor vibration control, which compensates for idling vibration that is unique to 3-cylinder engine, and sophisticated transient torque control between assist and regenerating modes, which harmonizes the characteristics of the two power sources to ensure better driving comfort.
    By Kenji UCHIBORI、Shinobu OCHIAI、Minoru SUZUKI、Takafumi TSURUMI、Kazuhiro HARA

    Development of the Ultra-thin DC Brushless Motor for a Hybrid Car – INSIGHT.
    We developed an ultra-thin DC brushless motor for use as the auxiliary drive of the ultra-low-fuel-consumption hybrid car, “INSIGHT”.
    Use of an ultra-thin design for this motor overcomes restrictions of the layout construction between the engine and the transmission. The ultra-thin design was achieved using a concentrated winding for the salient-pole of the split stator and a centralized distribution bus ring. Utilization of these technologies resulted in a maximum output performance of 10 kW at a maximum torque of 83.3 N-m while keeping the width of the electromagnetic motor circuits to a mere 60 mm. In addition, since the use of this arrangement for the motor subjects it to the effects of water and dirt just as with the clutch compartment, a joint chamber and labyrinth construction is used to form a drain. Meanwhile a stator cover and disk sensor are employed to prevent foreign matter from entering. This design achieves a motor capable of withstanding a harsh ambient environment.
    By Hirohisa OGAWA、Akiyoshi SHIMADA、Hiroo SHIMADA、Minoru NAKAJIMA

    Development of a 4-wheel Electric Wheelchair, MonPal ML100
    The MonPal ML100 is a 4-wheel electric motor-driven wheelchair developed with an aim toward achieving personal mobility while at the same time providing fun, freedom from care and comfort for those with restricted walking capabilities. It is characterized by a rearward tapering design intended to prevent the rear wheels from scraping and snagging.
    The power train, which is an integrated transmission and motor type, and the control system were specially developed to provide improved slope-climbing capabilities.
    Various features are incorporated in the operating system. These include an emergency stop function whereby if a driver grips the drive lever firmly, the vehicle will automatically come to stop; a sudden start prevention function that is employed to prevent mis-operation related incidents; and, a buzzer notification function.
    By Tsutomu INUI、Jun HOSAKA、Kiyotomi MAESAKA

    Development of a Closed Crankcase System Engine for Motorcycles
    A compact and lightweight single cylinder engine was developed for the off-road motorcycle XR650R. The engine features a closed crankcase. This engine system addresses the issue of deteriorated oil discharge prevention performance caused by pressure fluctuations in the crankcase, an issue common to single piston, large displacement engines. A construction was adopted whereby a bulkhead divides the crank chamber and the transmission chamber housed in the same housing. The pressure generated by the reciprocating motion of the piston discharges the engine oil to the transmission chamber. As a result, the pressure fluctuations in the transmission chamber were reduced, and, subsequently, so was the amount of blow-by gas discharge. Further, it was possible to reduce the breather chamber volume to 1/5 that of a conventional engine. Moreover, effects from reduced engine weight and friction loss were obtained.
    By Osamu KUDO、Yasuo SHIMURA、Nobuaki INUMARU、Koji TERADA

    Effects of Connecting Rod Big End Stiffness on Oil Film Pressure

    A new thin-film sensor that enables accurate measurement of the oil film pressure of compact bearings for passenger cars was developed. Using this new sensor, the oil film pressure distribution was measured for a variety of connecting rod big end stiffness levels, and the effect of those changes was investigated. These results confirmed that the oil film pressure distribution changes according to variety of the stiffness. Whereas the oil film pressure occurs with one peak in the load direction for a rigid connecting rod big end, the oil film pressure for an elastic connecting rod big end is dispersed and the direction of the peak does not match that of the load. In addition, elastohydrodynamic calculations were performed with the same conditions as the measurements, and the reasonableness of the measurements and calculations were confirmed.
    By Katsunori MAKINO、Kenji SATO、Kyoichi MACHIDA

    Bearing Tester Analysis of the Factors in Engine Plain Bearings Seizure
    A bearing tester that overcomes the problems of a conventional bearing tester was fabricated and experimental modes were selected in order to clarify factors determining the seizure limit of engine plain bearings. Using this tester, seizure tests were performed on copper-lead bearings with an overlay and aluminum alloy bearings, both of which are used as automotive engine bearings. Bearing hydrodynamics calculation was performed based on the obtained experimental data. These results clarified that the seizure limit for copper-lead bearings with an overlay is determined by the occurrence of plasticity flow of the overlay due to the maximum oil film pressure, and that the seizure limit for aluminum alloy bearings is determined by the minimum oil film thickness.
    By Katsunori MAKINO、Kenji SATO、Kyoichi MACHIDA

    Analysis of the Accessory Belt Running Off of the Pulley in Automotive Engines
    A bearing tester that overcomes the problems of a conventional bearing tester was fabricated and experimental modes were selected in order to clarify factors determining the seizure limit of engine plain bearings. Using this tester, seizure tests were performed on copper-lead bearings with an overlay and aluminum alloy bearings, both of which are used as automotive engine bearings. Bearing hydrodynamics calculation was performed based on the obtained experimental data. These results clarified that the seizure limit for copper-lead bearings with an overlay is determined by the occurrence of plasticity flow of the overlay due to the maximum oil film pressure, and that the seizure limit for aluminum alloy bearings is determined by the minimum oil film thickness.

    Knocking Quantification and the Development of a Knock Intensity Meter
    An algorithm which processes pressure signals in cylinders with a first frequency element and quantifies it based on its maximum value and statistic processing, and a real time measuring system utilizing the algorithm were established. To attain high applicability this system employs not only generally applied pressure sensors but also plug washer type sensors that can be applied to each cylinder for pressure measurements. Further, nearly all of the processing is performed using software applications. Rewriting of the software is made possible due to the simplified operations and the application of a VME board equipped with a high performance MCU processing built-in flash ROM. In consideration of expanded application in the future, the system, further, utilizes a special interface to enable automatic operation with the bench top automatic measuring system.
    By Masahiro SATOH 、Teruyoshi MORITA

    Analysis of CVT and Automated MT Influence on Fuel Economy, and the Estimating Improvements in Fuel Econom
    The effects on mode fuel economy by different types of transmissions, CVT and Automated Manual Transmission, were investigated using the same vehicle and engine specifications while varying transmission ratio range, friction, and similar. The results are as follows: In the case of the CVT, it was confirmed that a wider transmission ratio range is effective when driving at relatively high speeds with fewer stop-and-go situations, and friction reduction is effective when driving at relatively low speeds with frequent stop-and-go situations. On the other hand, in the case of Automated Manual Transmission, it was confirmed that a wider transmission ratio range is effective when driving at relatively high speeds with fewer stop-and-go situations, which is the same as the CVT, while a combination of a wider transmission ratio range, an increase in shift steps, and an appropriate distribution of transmission ratios is necessary when driving at relatively low speeds with frequent stop-and-to situations in order to achieve high efficiency power plant operation.
    By Takashi AOKI、Kazuhisa YAMAMOTO

    Evaluation of the Durability and Reliability of the Power Semiconductor Device for a Hybrid Car’s Motor Driver
    The reliability of the power semiconductor device for a hybrid car’s motor driver was verified by clarifying the relationship between the unit life characteristics and vehicle usage environment in terms of electric current and heat generation temperature. A reliability of 99.915% or more and a shape parameter (m) of 5.5 or more were obtained. Further, an evaluation method for durability and reliability was established.

    Energy Efficiency Improvements for a Series Hybrid Vehicle

    A system was developed for a series hybrid electric vehicle that is characterized by mechanically separating the engine and axle to thereby enable operation in the optimum electric generation range. This system was developed to vastly improve fuel economy without sacrificing vehicle dynamic performance.
    The study focused on real-time generating without surplus or deficit in accordance with motor power to improve energy transfer efficiency and decrease the size and weight of the energy storage unit. At the same time, generating efficiency was improved by operating the engine with a minimum Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). The system was tested on a 1 500 kg equivalent inertia weight class vehicle whereby it was verified that a 94% fuel economy was achieved in comparison to gasoline-powered vehicles in the same class, while no sacrifices were made to dynamic performance.
    By Satoshi AOYAGI、Yusuke HASEGAWA、Hiroyuki ABE、Takahiro YONEKURA

    Development of CFRP Rotor for Flywheel Batteries
    Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) filament winding was selected as the forming method for the flywheel battery rotor due to its high specific energy. In order to prevent the delamination problem that often occurs with this forming process, a press fit multi-ring construction was employed. This multi-ring construction consists of a CFRP ring with a high elastic modulus, a CFRP ring with medium elastic modulus and an aluminum ring. A safety factor of 2.0 was set and each rotor ring was designed and manufactured with the optimal material and dimensions. Rotational tests were performed through 70 000 rpms whereby it was verified that the 2.0 safety factor is maintained. Further, by taking stress measurements up to 50 000 RPM, we were able to demonstrate the validity of the design.
    By Hiroyuki KOBAYASHI

    Thermal Behavior Mechanism of Lithium-ion Batteries for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles
    Thermodynamics experiment and study were carried out for the Lithium-ion batteries that are expected as the power sources for electric and hybrid vehicles. It is confirmed that the heat coming in and going out depend on charging and discharging, respectively. And the heat generation factors will be decomposed to three elements: reaction heat value Qr , polarization heat value Qp , and joule heat value Qj . Furthermore, the contribution degree of each factor was able to be expressed quantitatively, by dividing these heat generation factors for charging and discharging.
    The accuracy of thermodynamics logic was verified since the thermodynamics calculation coincided with the experimental data of heat generation for the practical Li-ion batteries for EV. It is possible to utilize the calculation and simulation for the development of Li-ion battery and the establishment of thermal control technology not only for EV but also for HEV
    By Naoki MARUNO、Kazuhiro ARAKI、Noboru SATO

    Development of a Lane mark Recognition System for a Lane Keeping Assist System

    A lane mark recognition system that processes images taken by a camera for a Lane Keeping Assist System (LKAS) has been developed. This system is a main component of the Honda Intelligent Driver Support System. This system uses a new algorithm that is a combination of Hough transformation and the process of extracting positive and negative edges which are features of lane marks. By employing this algorithm, we can remove noise and execute high speed image processing with a special chip. As a result, we can process images in real time even in such complex situation as a parting road or double broken line conditions.
    In experiments on real images, we were able to verify a high rate of recognition and accuracy of output data sufficient for steering control.
    By Tetsuo IKEDA、Kiyozumi UNOURA、Kenichi MINETA

    Algorithm for Crash Judgment by Frequency Analysis
    A crash judgment algorithm that uses frequency analysis has been developed. This algorithm judges whether or not a crash has occurred by calculating both energy elements and frequency elements. Frequency analysis is implemented in hardware at the current microprocessor level using a Hadamard transform that does not require multiplication or division in the calculation of frequency elements. This approach improves the accuracy of crash judgments and reduces development time.
    By Kazuo MATSUDA、Yukio HIRUTA、Tsutomu FUKUI

    An Application of Occupant Deceleration Control by the Crash Load Control Structure to an Actual Vehicle

    In order to reduce the maximum value of occupant deceleration in a vehicle crash, a body structure was devised to approximate the optimal vehicle deceleration wave form by utilizing the difference of the deformation mode of the body. This concept of structure was successfully applied to an actual vehicle.
    By Takahiro KAMEI、Yasuki MOTOZAWA

    Study of Occupant Deceleration Control During a Crash Due to Vehicle Mass Separation
    In order to reduce the maximum value of occupant deceleration in a vehicle crash, a physical model which utilizes the separated mass of a vehicle was devised to yield an optimal vehicle deceleration wave form. The validity of this model has been certified by a mathematical study and a three-dimensional dummy simulation.
    By Takahiro KAMEI、Yasuki MOTOZAWA

    Low Order Modeling of an Acoustic Path for Active Noise Control and Design Method of Feedback Control
    In order to reduce the cost of active noise reduction (ANC), this research focused on feedback (FB) control, which characteristically does by not require reference signal sensors. The purpose of this paper is low order modeling of acoustic transfer characteristic (plant) between a control noise source and an error sensor arranged at the control point; and, the designing of a controller based on the results. Specifically, this entails constructing as simple an FB-ANC system as possible (a 1 input/1 output system), then investigating the noise reduction performance of that system. First, the authors employed physical modeling in order to model the plant in the lowest possible order. In addition, Smith predictor-FB-ANC is presented, and FBANC based on PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) control is designed for the low-order plant model obtained. Finally, the validity of these results is demonstrated with computer simulation using actual data.
    By Hisashi SANO、Shuichi ADACHI

    Reliability of Pb-free Soldered Joints for Automotive Applications
    Tests were conducted to evaluate the grain growth rate of the structure and the intermetallic compound layer fracture rate. These tests included the physical properties, as well as peeling, which is a mechanical property of Pb free soldered joints. In addition, thermal shock tests (acceleration tests) were performed to evaluate the life span as related to thermal fatigue.
    First, the grain growth rate and intermetallic compound layer fracture rate of the Pb-free soldered structure were confirmed to follow the rule of parabolic curves. Next, the life span of Pb-free soldered joints under market conditions was predicted using Miner’s rule of reliability engineering based on the effects of heat stress obtained through acceleration tests and the heat stress frequency in an automotive application.
    By Toshihiro OKAMA、Kazuhiko HIRATA

    Application of the Magic Formula Tyres Model to Motorcycle Maneuverability Analysis
    The Magic Formula Tire Model, recently utilized in maneuverability analysis for automobiles, was applied to a motorcycle simulation model. The correlation between the simulated and measured characteristics for straight running stability and turning performance was compared with those of the current Carpet Plotted Tire Model. Further, the ease of use of the Magic Formula was investigated. The results show that correlation with actual tire characteristics is high for the Magic Formula Tire Model and, further, that the changing of tire properties can be easily accomplished with this model.
    By Yoshitaka TEZUKA、Satoru KIYOTA、Hidefumi ISHII

    Development of High Fatigue Strength Ultra-Fine Grained Stainless Steel for Cylinder Head Gasket

    Fatigue testing of metallic cylinder head gaskets has shown that there is a performance discrepancy between the original sheet material and the manufactured gasket. It was determined that this discrepancy was caused by the grain boundary cracking that occurs during head forming. Therefore, an improved austenitic stainless spring steel possessing high fatigue strength was developed to improve gasket performance. This new steel features a grain-refined structure achieved by controlling recrystallization with reverse transformation.
    The developed steel has a composite structure consisting of a rolling induced martensite structure and a recrystallized austenitic structure by reverse transformation having an average grain size kept to within 1 ~ 2 μm. When this material is applied to a cylinder head gasket, fatigue strength is increased 30% and there is no loss of combustion gas sealing performance.
    By Takashi KATSURAI

    Development of High-sealing Foamed Rubber Gasket Material
    A high-performance durable formed rubber gasket material characterized by both superior compressive recovery and adaptability to rough surfaces was developed for automotive internal combustion engine sealing applications. Research was performed on gaskets exhibiting high sealing properties and a simplified fastening structure. As a result of the research, a gasket was produced with low surface pressure sealing properties that far exceed those of the conventional gasket materials due to the structure of the base rubber material, which is a foamed rubber material with a closed cell construction, and the optimization of the additive composition. The application of this gasket to an engine intake system facilitates the streamlining of the fastening structure.
    By Takuya AOKI、Yasunori MURAKAMI、Atsuo YAMAGUCHI、Junpei YOSHIDA

    Development of Lightweight Oil Pans Made of a Heat-Resistant Magnesium Alloy
    A new heat-resistant magnesium alloy (hereafter referred to as “ACM522”) for die-casting based on the Mg-Al-Ca-RE system has been developed. In the 150°C temperature range, ACM522 yields high creep characteristics which are superior to the conventional AE42 heat-resistant magnesium alloy for die casting. Further it exhibits an excellent resistance to both heat and corrosion which is equivalent to ADC12 general-purpose aluminum alloy. Use of magnesium for oil pans has raised a number of problems such as axial force drop in the bolted areas and, until now, oil pans made of magnesium had not been applied to mass-produced automobiles. The authors applied the ACM522 for oil pans and achieved a 35% weight reduction compared to conventional oil pans made of aluminum.
    By Kazuhiro WASHIZU、Kazuo KIKAWA、Seiichi KOIKE、Shigekazu TANAKA、Tsuyoshi BABA

    The Development of Converter Canning Technology for Thin Wall Substrate
    By applying a tourniquet type (rolling type) catalytic converter can, which is adaptable to the diameter of the substrate, a stable holding pressure can be successfully obtained. Additionally, by using of a double layer mat material, consisting of an inner layer of a high heat resistant alumina fiber and an outer layer of the current vermiculite containing material, the rate of holding pressure loss due to mat degradation is reduced. A combination of these two techniques allows the canning of a 1200 cell, thin wall substrate without breakage and, further, enables in-use durability requirements to be met.
    By Tatsuya OKAYAMA、Shinichi TOSA、Junichi NAKADE

    Development of an ABS/PA6 Polymer Alloy for Body Panel Applications

    An ABS/PA6 polymer alloy has been developed as a resin for body panels of vehicles with an aim toward overall vehicle weight reduction. Compared to conventional resins, this resin has improved surface appearance and the balance between dimensional stability and impact resistance . A “Sink Mark Evaluation Standard” was established for surface appearance, and the ratio of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin and Polyamide6 (PA6) was adjusted to satisfy this standard. An ABS resin ratio of 50% or more was found to be effective for sink mark performance. The filler type and amount were important for the balance between dimensional stability and impact resistance with talc possessing particle diameter of 2μm being found to be effective target achievement. This resin shows a 45% weight reduction over steel panel products in the front fender.
    By Tatsuya OKAYAMA、Shinichi TOSA、Junichi NAKADE

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