Research & Development Honda R&D Technical Review Vol.14 No.2

Research & Development Honda R&D Technical

  1. Ichiban
    Development of GX25 4-Stroke Engine for Handheld Equipment
    The multi-position 4-stroke engine, GX25, was developed for handheld equipment such as string trimmers and brush cutters. The purpose of the development was to achieve weight and acceleration levels equivalent to 2-stroke engines with better startability than the current GX22/31. Further refinement was made to the Rotary Slinger Pump Lubrication system developed for the GX22/31. To achieve lightweight composition, an OHC structure with an in-oil micro timing belt was adopted. A new one piece Rocker Arm Assembly and sintered cam were adopted in order to fit the valve train in the limited space of the oil tank. As a result of above the improvements, the GX25 has 13% less weight, 13% more displacement, and 30% more power-weight ratio when compared to the GX22. Furthermore, the improved decompression system has reduced the pull load and enhanced startability. A newly developed acceleration pump has achieved the 2-stroke level acceleration. In addition, matched with the UMK425 brush cutter, the reduced inertial moment of a lighter engine makes it easier to operate the equipment.
    By Keita ITO、Shigeki EDAMATSU、Shingo YONEDA、Yasutake RYU、Makoto WARASHINA

    Development of the Compact FG201 Tiller

    The FG201 tiller was developed to realize the highest level of work performance among compact tillers while also achieving low weight. This tiller utilizes a specially-designed 4-stroke OHV engine equipped with a mechanical governor that maintains optimum rotor speed. This keeps the engine speed from falling off even when tilling hard soil, thus producing excellent tilling performance. The tiller is designed to keep the center of gravity low and near the tiller blade axis. The blades are newly designed to match the lightweight body. Special attention was given to the shape of the drag bar, and tine shaft rotation was set at an optimum speed. These measures achieved a low weight of 17 kg, making this the lightest tiller in the 4-stroke engine class, and also made it possible to achieve top class work efficiency for compact tillers. In terms of operability, the recoil starter force has been reduced 40% over conventional tillers by utilizing optimum decompressor valve lift and valve timing settings. A centrifugal clutch was adopted so that the throttle lever alone could be used to start and stop operation. This produces simplicity of operation, making the tiller easy to use for beginners and elderly people. This model was also made to easily carry around and stow in a passenger vehicle, with a folding handle for compact storage and a single handed carrying handle. In terms of environmental conformity, this model meets the EPA Phase II and CARB Tier II regulation levels, as well as European EN noise regulations for 2006 Stage 2.
    ByTakayuki SATO、Masayuki SASAOKA、Takashi IKEDA、Nobuchika KATAGIRI

    Development of a Four-stroke Engine with Turbocharger for Personal Watercraft

    Recently, there is a movement to apply emission control in marine engines in the United States. Environmental measures for marine engines have become severe. Honda has developed a three seat personal watercraft with a 4-stroke engine installed in consideration of environmental suitability and the future. Using the motorcycle CBR1100XX in-line 4-cylinder 4-stroke engine, with a displacement of 1,100 cm3 as the base engine, the specifications were modified for marine use to satisfy such areas as engine performance, function, and corrosion resistance, as a PWC engine. Moreover, the turbocharger was employed to obtain a power/weight ratio greater than that of PWCs with 2-stroke engines. Driveability and durability exceeding conventional PWCs with 2-stroke engine were achieved. Emission performance of the engine satisfied EPA2006 and CARB2004 regulations, while fuel economy also improved by 16 % compared to conventional 2-stroke engine models.
    By Hitoshi YOKOTANI、Kazunori OKADA、Takaharu KUROSAKI

    Development of the Motor for the Civic Hybrid

    A thin DC brushless motor was developed as auxiliary power for the Civic Hybrid, which is positioned to take the world lead in fuel consumption for five-passenger automobiles. The concept was to create a hybrid car using an existing mass-produced engine in an existing mass-produced car body. This raised more issues than the Insight, which was made with an engine and body specifically designed for that purpose. The Civic has a heavier body than the Insight. In order to assure its power performance and increase the energy regenerated during deceleration the engine displacement had to be increased and the regenerative performance of the motor had to be improved. However, the Civic body has the same width as the Insight, so it was not possible to increase the motor width in correspondence with the regenerative performance. The objective in development of the motor, therefore, was to improve performance while keeping the motor the same width. The methods used to achieve this objective were to increase the torque constant and to reduce the losses in all parts involved. Specifically, the space gained in the axial direction by functional integration of parts made it possible to increase the cumulative stator thickness, and the adoption of new coil winding methods made it possible to enlarge the coil diameter and the width of the teeth. As a result, the motor regenerative torque was improved approximately 30% while maintaining the same motor width, and the average efficiency of the motor in the practical use area was improved approximately 3%.
    By Hirohisa OGAWA、Kenji FUKUDA

    Development of High Power Energy Storage for the Civic Hybrid

    An attempt was made to improve the power density of a conventional nickel metal-hydride battery for installation of a hybrid system in the limited space available in a heavier vehicle. The plates were extended by 12%, the negative collector tab was eliminated, and the number of welds joining plate and collector was increased. These measures reduced the internal resistance by 19%. As a result, the power density during regeneration improved by 27%, making it possible to deal with increased regeneration energy without increasing the cubic volume of energy storage installed.
    By Morio KAYANO、Kazuya OHZONO

    Development of a New Manual Transmission for a 3-Liter Class Vehicle

    A new 6-speed manual transmission for 3 L class engines has been developed as Honda’s top-of-the-line manual transmission. To be mounted on different models, this transmission was given the capability to employ a wide range of gear ratios and to handle high torque while keeping its total length equal to transmissions for 2 L class. Computer aided engineering (CAE) analysis was used to enhance the gear stiffness in order to cope with higher power outputs. The inside surface of the case was made smooth and a force feed lubrication system driven by an oil pump has been used to reduce oil agitation loss in order to curb a rise in oil temperature at high travel speeds. Much emphasis was put on reducing the weight of each component, which resulted in a 3 L class transmission with the weight equal to 2 L class. In order to realize the level of quality appropriate for our top-of-the-line vehicles, the transmission has been equipped with a constant-mesh reverse gear and a dual mass flywheel.

    Development of Electric Power Steering System for F-1 Race Car

    An electric power steering system for an F-1 car was developed and fitted into a 2000-2001 model F-1 car. The purpose of this development was to reduce steering effort, which can exceed 350 N during a race. The new system achieves the assist performance required for the F-1 car and is compact and lightweight, with low energy consumption. To achieve this, the motor, the motor control unit driving the motor, the torque sensor, the steering gear box containing the reduction gear and the control systems were all redesigned. During development, assist performance and response were evaluated on bench tests, and stroking durability and reliability were evaluated by simulation using actual car data. Final configuration was determined using track tests. As a result, a system was developed which meets assist performance targets and satisfies the F-1 car durability and reliability requirements.
    By Hideki KUBONOYA、Katsuhiro SAKAI、Hideyuki FUJITA、Jun BABA、Yutaka HORIUCHI

    Reduction of Engine Noise in the New Accord Using Hybrid CAE Technology

    Hybrid CAE models were constructed for the 2003 Accord to reduce cabin noise induced from engine order vibration. The Hybrid CAE method utilizes a combination of two different approaches: numerical and experimental analysis. Targets for each system’s contribution to cabin noise were established on the basis of tests of the prototype during the initial stage of development. The achievement of these targets has significantly reduced engine noise in the new Accord.
    By Tetsuya MIYAHARA、Tatsuhide SAKAI、Tomonori NIIZATO、Hiromichi TSUSHIMA

    A Configuration Evaluation Technique for CVT Metal Belt Rings

    A method for divided measurement of the lateral curvature of rings was developed for use in helping assure the quality of metal pushing V-belts for continuously variable transmissions (CVT). The method measures the lateral curvature without cutting the ring by dividing the full circumference into several partial segments that are measured separately. The data for the overlapping portions are cross-checked and the data starting point is then shifted over to calculate the peak-to-trough height automatically. The maximum quantity is taken as the lateral curvature for evaluation. The conventional method of lateral curvature measurement by cutting and expanding had shortcomings because that method could not be used for measurement prior to testing on actual transmissions and the lateral curvature varied depending on the point of cutting when measuring rings with points of curvature change. The present approach has resolved those issues.
    By Mamoru ARIKAWA、Hirotoshi SHIMA

    Development of High-Speed and High-Precision Production Technology for Mock-up Models

    Technologies for 5-axis machining and high-speed machining were developed with the objective of shortening development schedules and achieving higher-precision quality in the Numeric Control (NC) machining of mock-up models, compared to conventional NC machining which consists mainly of 3-axis machining. The conventional NC machining format was thoroughly reviewed in terms of infrastructure, hardware, software, and machining technology. By developing a new system that links CAD/CAM software with the NC machine, 5-axis NC machining and 3-axis high-speed machining technologies have become possible. At the same time, high quality NC data creation time was reduced. As a result of these new technologies, the NC process has become five times faster than the conventional methods.
    By Mitsuhiro OKADA、Soichi ANEKAWA

    Development of a Low Heat-Capacity Exhaust Manifold for SULEV

    A dual-wall exhaust manifold was developed that has low heat capacity in order to reduce the time taken to reach the catalyst activation temperature. An austenitic stainless steel with significantly improved high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance was developed by optimizing the composition design so that the inner tube could be made as thin as possible. The use of this material made it possible to increase the buckling strength at high temperatures and to make the inner tube wall 0.4 mm thick. In United States emission modes, a dual-wall exhaust manifold with an inner tube having a wall 0.4 mm thick is able to reach the catalyst light-off temperature 3 seconds faster than an ordinary single-wall manifold that is 2 mm thick. This achieved a reduction of approximately 22% in hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. The combined application of air-fuel ratio (A/F) control technology and catalyst technology together with the developed exhaust manifold made it possible to reduce the amount of precious metals used in an under-floor converter by approximately 20% compared to a 2001 model vehicle with SULEV specifications.
    By Nobuyuki YOSHIDA、Takeshi MUNEMURA、Kazuo ISHII

    Development of Electronic Throttle Control Utilizing Adaptive Control Method
    Electronic throttle control has been focused upon in recent years as a measure to provide greater accuracy for idling air control and to help reduce emissions. For this reason, it is necessary to achieve greater robustness in throttle control performance, to cope with variations between individual units and degradation of parts over time. Up to the present, it has been difficult for PID control systems to recognize unspecified disturbances, and this has been an impediment to achieving a balance between robustness and responsiveness. To perform robustness, an adaptive control system has been constructed which utilizes sliding mode control and contains an identifier to perform sequential calculations. This technology has realized previously unavailable levels of robustness, accuracy, and responsiveness in an electronic throttle control.

    Development of an Intelligent Power Unit for the Civic Hybrid

    The Intelligent Power Unit (IPU) utilized in Honda’s Civic Hybrid Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) system was developed with the aim of making every component lighter, more compact and more efficient than those in the former model. To reduce energy loss, inverter efficiency was increased by fine patterning of the Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) chips, 12 V DC-DC converter efficiency was increased by utilizing soft-switching, and the internal resistance of the IMA battery was lowered by modifying the electrodes and the current collecting structure. These improvements reduced the amount of heat generated by the unit components and made it possible to combine the previously separate Power Control Unit (PCU) and battery cooling systems into a single system. Consolidation of these two cooling circuits into one has reduced the volume of the newly developed IPU by 42% compared to the former model.
    By Masaharu HOSODA、Kazuhiko AITAKA、Takuya NOMURA

    Development of High-Capacity MgMH Alloy for Hydrogen Storage

    A method of mechanical grinding using nanoparticle catalyst was applied to create hydrogen-absorbing magnesium alloy with a chemical composition of Mg-0.33 Ni-0.17 Fe (at%). The use of nanoparticle catalyst made it possible to achieve a 15-minute process time that was one-fortieth or less in comparison with the conventional method with an acceleration of 13.3 G. The synthesized hydrogen storage magnesium alloy possessed a microstructure with catalyst metal distributed uniformly across the powder surface and throughout the matrix. As a result, the alloy yielded significantly improved hydrogen storage capacity, achieving a maximum capacity of 7.49 wt%. This rate of hydrogen absorption places it in the world’s top level of hydrogen-absorbing alloys that are currently being reported.
    By Mitsuya HOSOE、Izuru KANOYA、Takanori SUZUKI

    Application and Utilization of HILS for the Development of an Automatic Transmission Control System
    In connection with development of an automatic transmission electronic control unit (AT ECU), a development aid technology known as hardware in the loop simulation (HILS) was introduced for testing with the objective of improving AT control reliability and shortening the time required for development. In order to realize the HILS technology, it was necessary to assure the calculation accuracy in AT shift feeling simulation models and to perform real-time simulations using the existing digital signal processors (DSP). The present development improved the method of modeling the AT hydraulic pressure control system. HILS implemented multi-rating, reducing the scheduler overhead, thus making it possible to lighten the calculation burden on the central processing unit (CPU). As a result, it became possible to perform real-time simulations with assured calculation accuracy, which allowed HILS technology to be utilized during the development of the AT shift control system.

    Establishment of Design Method for Transmission by 3D Media
    Design trials with 3D media in the product development of transmissions revealed that increased design times became an issue. Consequently, research was performed on measures to resolve this issue, including the building of a 3D design process, development of the necessary 3D CAD functions needed for such a process, establishment of 3D drawing rules, and review of the development process. Design methods were then built that utilize 3D media consistently from layout to product drawing. With use of the newly built 3D design methods, design time was reduced to the level of design using conventional 2D media or even less. This made it possible to build a highly efficient development system for use from design to manufacture.
    By Nagomu KUBOTA、Yoichiro ISHIHAMA、Hiromi SHIMADA、Takanao UCHIDA

    Development of Stiffness Analysis Technology for Transmission Housing

    A technique was developed for simulating the stiffness and strength of a transmission housing by reproducing the behavior of the housing contact surface. This technique uses non-linear modeling methods to reproduce bolt tightening, positioning with dowel pins, the behavior of contact surfaces with consideration to gasket material and the stiffness of inner parts such as the differential case. The predictive accuracy regarding behavior in an actual transmission increased greatly as a result, and the discrepancy with test results fell to 15% or better. This made it possible to conduct evaluations by simulating the housing stiffness and strength in bench torsion testing at the stage of design. Specialized pre- and postprocessing tools were also developed for widespread dissemination of this simulation technique among designers, shortening the calculation time and labor to the amount of one-third of what it had been.
    By Chikae SASAHARA、Yasutomo IIJIMA、Kouichi TOMITA、Masami HIRAOKA、Satoru SUZUKI

    Development of a High-Filtration-Ratio Automatic Transmission Fluid Strainer

    To simplify the production process for vacuum-formed instrument panels, adhesive spray coating of the surface of the plastic foundation has been replaced by pre-coating the bottom side surface of the laminated skin, reducing the number of procedures required for spraying and drying. Further, the development of an adhesive with excellent olefin adhesion qualities has reduced the number of pretreatment steps necessary for the foundation and skin. Adoption of this method has simplified the production process, and reduced the required number of procedures from nine to five, thereby resulting in cost reductions.
    By Koichiro INUKAI、Takeo FURUTA、Kazuki MATSUBARA、Yoshitaka NISHIO、Masaharu SUZUKI

    Development of Road Friction Coefficient Estimation Logic

    The further development of vehicle stability assist (VSA) and other such forms of vehicle dynamics control requires techniques for estimating the road friction coefficient more accurately and in real-time. The present research integrated non-linear tire characteristics data with vehicle side slip angle estimation logic to develop a new estimation logic that is more accurate and has greater response than the conventional logic. The estimation accuracy of this logic was further verified in tests with actual vehicles, thus demonstrating the validity of the developed logic.
    By Keiyu KIN、Hironobu KIRYU、Osamu YANO

    Development of a Lightweight Manual Transmission Case of a Heat-Resistant Magnesium Alloy

    A manual transmission case was developed by using a heat-resistant magnesium alloy that achieves a 24% weight reduction over a conventional aluminum alloy case. AE62-Ca was developed by improving the castability of the Mg-Al-Ca-RE-base heat-resistant magnesium alloy ACM522, which had a history of use in oil pans, and this new alloy was applied. At the same time, with the objective of achieving a more reasonable price, a recycling process was developed that resulted in a recycling yield on a par with general magnesium alloys. A formed-in place gasket was developed that provided adhesive strength without chemical treatment and fluorocation resin coating bolts were also developed to prevent galvanic corrosion at the contact surface.
    By Hideaki MIYASHITA、Masayasu SAKATA、Sadaharu MATSUMURA、Yukihiro HAYAKAWA、Masayuki NAKADA

    Development of Precoat Adhesive for All Olefin Instrument Panel
    To simplify the production process for vacuum-formed instrument panels, adhesive spray coating of the surface of the plastic foundation has been replaced by pre-coating the bottom side surface of the laminated skin, reducing the number of procedures required for spraying and drying. Further, the development of an adhesive with excellent olefin adhesion qualities has reduced the number of pretreatment steps necessary for the foundation and skin. Adoption of this method has simplified the production process, and reduced the required number of procedures from nine to five, thereby resulting in cost reductions.
    By Tetsuya ODA、Atsushi KAWATA

    Development of a Tubeless Tyre Pressure Monitoring System for Motorcycles

    A tyre air pressure monitoring system for motorcycles was developed. The system informs a rider of low air pressure or an air leak in the tire. High monitoring accuracy was obtained by compensating for the temperature of the air pressure, by measuring air pressure in the tire, by changes in pressure and temperature during running, and by the lowering of air pressure in the case of a flat tyre. An air leak is judged by the speed of the air leak converted from an air pressure change and temperature change. The adjustment of the unbalanced revolution of wheels was minimized by mounting a separated tire valve and sensor. Indication of the air pressure and an alarm is for enhancing the rider’s recognition during running.
    By Tomoyuki HARADA、Toshio YAMAGIWA、Masayoshi ORITA

    A Combined Experimental-Numerical Approach for Motorcycle Crank Noise

    Riders prefer comfortable crank noise levels as they do for handling and riding vibration. A simulation modeling method for a single-cylinder motorcycle engine was established to identify the mechanism that is the cause of unpleasant crank noise. The combined approach of experimental and numerical analysis was applied to evaluate a design change’s effectiveness in determining a cause of crank noise. An experiment is effective to identify an important engine behavior parameter when modeling the engine. The result of numerical analysis by using the established model was verified using experimental data from the prototype.
    By Masahiko SEKITA、Hiroshi TAMURA

    Development of a Silent Drive Chain System for Motorcycles

    Chain noise, which is one of the influential factors to motorcycle pass-by noise regulation, can be classified into two categories: low frequency noise from the rear wheel originated from cordal action according to the second order component of chain meshing and high frequency noise generated by the impact when a chain roller contacts the sprocket bottom. A shape improvement using a urethane resin damper mounted on the drive sprocket and a steel roller drive chain with a urethane resin roller were effective for noise reduction, respectively. The new chain system that combined these new ideas has been proven to be capable of reducing the chain noise to half that of a conventional system.
    By Masahiko SEKITA、Haruomi SUGITA、Tomohiro FUSE

    Development of Interior Sound for a Medium Coupe with Sportiness as an Objective Evaluation Index
    A new model medium size coupe was developed with consideration of a sporty interior sound. Subjective evaluation of competitor vehicles was correlated with measured objective results to establish a target interior sound index. The target values on this index were determined at the concept stage of development with respect to relative position of competing cars. As a result of subjective evaluation of artificial interior sounds that represented candidate target values, a target sound was established. The air intake system from the base sedan was modified exclusively for the coupe. Adjustments to intake tube diameter, length, and intake inlet position resulted in an exclusive coupe intake sound. This yielded an interior sound with the sportiness and linear feeling that was desired under acceleration.
    By Koji ITO、Masashi IWAI、Kazuya KUTSUZAWA、Tomoyuki NUMATA、Hidenori SEIKE、Yasuo ISHII

    Sensory Evaluation of Road Noise with Physiological Reaction using Electroencephalogram

    A method for direct measurement of organic reactions (brain waves) was used to evaluate interior road noise. This was used in addition to the conventional, indirect method of descriptive sensory evaluation. The results showed that the annoyance factors in perception of sample sounds that included road noise could be divided into an active pleasant-unpleasant factor and a passive comfort-discomfort factor. The use of brain wave measurement for the passive comfort factor demonstrated the possibility of obtaining objective descriptions that are statistically significant.
    By Yutaka ARAGA、Tsuyoshi YAMASHITA、Yasuo ISHII

    Development of Pass-by Noise Analysis Technology with Utilization of Engine Control Data

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a simulation method using Finite Element Model in order to predict exhaust radiation noise. This newly developed method predicts the radiation noise in a sound field located away from the vibrating surface of structure by coupling calculation between fluid exhaust gas and exhaust parts. By applying measurement values to boundary conditions, accurate radiation noise from the exhaust system is obtained, and the noise causing parts and the mechanism are clarified. This method allows for the investigation of exhaust radiation noise at an early stage in development. Also, the accuracy of measurement values using boundary conditions is improved by introducing semiconductor pressure sensors with 1-MHz sampling and a laser Doppler velocimeter. Furthermore, the measurement results showed the existence of a shock wave during an exhaust pulsation.

    Development of the Exhaust System Radiation Noise Simulation Technology Using Exhaust Pulsation

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a simulation method using Finite Element Model in order to predict exhaust radiation noise. This newly developed method predicts the radiation noise in a sound field located away from the vibrating surface of structure by coupling calculation between fluid exhaust gas and exhaust parts. By applying measurement values to boundary conditions, accurate radiation noise from the exhaust system is obtained, and the noise causing parts and the mechanism are clarified. This method allows for the investigation of exhaust radiation noise at an early stage in development. Also, the accuracy of measurement values using boundary conditions is improved by introducing semiconductor pressure sensors with 1-MHz sampling and a laser Doppler velocimeter. Furthermore, the measurement results showed the existence of a shock wave during an exhaust pulsation.

    Study of Noise Reduction for an Overdriven Compact Oil Pump
    An issue involving noise reduction due to an abnormal noise from the oil filter arose during the development of an overdriven compact oil pump. This issue was approached by focusing on the amplitude of the oil pressure fluctuation at the pump discharge side (hereafter oil pressure fluctuation amplitude) which was the excitation force. Noise reduction was implemented using technology to reduce the oil pressure fluctuation amplitude. This involved revising the number of teeth in the rotor and changing the characteristics of the opening of the relief valve.
    A small-diameter, multi-toothed compact rotor was developed to take full advantage of compactness and low friction for the 2003 Accord. The number of teeth in the inner rotor was increased from four to eight, thus reducing the oil pressure fluctuation force. The relief valve was also given additional pre-relief holes in order to improve the response at the valve opening timing, with the objective of improving the product’s marketability with respect to noise and vibration.
    By Hisayuki HASHIMOTO、Yasunori ONO、Yoshiaki SENGA、Koji HIRANO、Masakazu KINOSHITA

    Establishment of a Method for Formability Evaluation on Motorcycle Fuel Tank

    The “Press map method” for simplicity and high speed and the “Press CAE analysis method” for depth and high accuracy were developed as tools for achieving a press formability of motorcycle fuel tanks. The methods enabling evaluation of press formability in the design stage were established. The effectiveness and reliability of the methods were verified by confirming the correlation of actual measurement data with the analysis result in applying the method to the actual models.
    By Hiroki YOKOTA、Takashi OGINO、Hiroyuki KAMO、Shoji KUWABARA、Minoru SAITO、Tomoyuki TAGAMI
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